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Laser beam welding is a welding process. The energy is supplied through the laser. It is mainly used for welding components that need to be joined at high welding speeds, with narrow and thin weld seams and little thermal distortion. The process often referred to as laser welding, is usually performed without filler material.
The laser beam is focused using an optic. The junction of the components to be welded is near the focus of the optic (at the focal point). The focus position (above or below) relative to the workpiece surface is an important welding parameter and also determines the weld depth. The typical diameter of the focal point is a few tenths of a millimeter. This results in very high energy concentrations where the laser used typically has a laser power of several kilowatts. Absorption of laser power causes a very rapid temperature rise beyond the melting temperature of the metal on the workpiece surface so that a melt is formed. Due to the high cooling rate of the weld seam, it becomes very hard depending on the material and often loses its toughness. To protect the weld point from oxidation, it is continuously flushed with high purity argon (1 l/min), which is heavier than air and therefore replaces oxygen. The purity of the argon gas must be at least "4.6" (99.96%).
Where is Laser Welding Used?
Laser welding is generally preferred in the following areas.
• Electronic Materials
• Transportation Systems
• In Aircraft and Aviation Industry
Laser welding can be applied to light metals and their compounds such as Aluminum (Al), Magnesium (Mg), and Titanium (Ti). It can also be used for steel and other different metals. Laser welding can also be applied underwater. In recent years, arc welding has been used in underwater welding but laser welding is used more practically and actively today.